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HistoryMaster700x250Whilst some people believe the Aboriginal people of Australia have been using the didgeridoo for 40,000 years or more, archaeological research suggests that the didgeridoo is only about 2000 years old. The evidence of this research comes in the form of rock art studies in the Northern Territory which show images of humans playing the didgeridoo painted on cave walls starting from about 2000 years ago. Before this time, there are no images of didgeridoos or humans playing didgeridoos. Regardless of how old the didgeridoo is, Western society has only recently – relatively speaking – become acquainted with the didgeridoo. The following timeline shows important dates relating to our understanding of the didgeridoo. The timeline includes historic events that either directly or indirectly led to greater awareness and understanding of the didgeridoo and the Aboriginal cultures that it is a part of. A useful feature of this timeline is the date of establishments of mission stations in the didgeridoo’s traditional heartland. Missions were important outposts through which early collecting efforts by institutions and individuals alike were conducted.

1788      Australia colonized by Europeans.

1835      First written account of the didgeridoo is published where it is described as a trumpet.

1908     Mission station established at Roper River.

1912      First audio recording of the didgeridoo. Recordings made by Sir Baldwin Spencer using a phonograph and wax cylinders.

1916       Mission station established on South Goulburn Island.

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1921      Galiwin’ku Mission established by Rev. J. C. Jennison.

1921      Mission Station established at Groote Eylandt.1922 Anthropologist Norman Tindale conducted ethnographic research on Groote Eylandt.1923 Mission at Galiwin’ku shifted to Milingimbi.

1925      Mission station established at Oenpelli. The word didgeridoo came into being, attributed to Herbert Basedow.

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1926      Anthropologist W. Lloyd Warner commenced field research at Milingimbi, and later published “A Black Civilization: A Social Study of an Aboriginal Tribe”, the first ethnographic study of an Australian Aboriginal tribe. Mention is made of the Iraki, a “trumpet about four feet long”.

1931      Arnhem Land is estogglelished as an Aboriginal reserve.

1934      Mission established at Yirrkala by Rev. Wilbur S. Chaseling. A local arts and craft industry is created at Yirrkala to supply ethnographic museums and private collectors.

mission

1935      Donald Thomson’s first visit to Arnhem Land. Thomson’s research in the area from the 1930s-40s remains one of the most important anthropological studies on the Yolngu people and their culture. The large number of artifacts and other items of material culture he collected are now housed at the Melbourne Museum.

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1939      Start of WWII. Royal Australian Air Force, Army and Naval bases set up over the following years in various parts of the Northern Territory including Milingimbi, Yirrkala, the Wessel Islands, North Goulburn Island, and near Oenpelli.

1946      R. M. and C. H. Berndt commenced anthropological research work in Arnhem Land, and continued field trips into the area for a number of years. A large number of art works and artifacts were collected, now housed at the Anthropology Museum of the University of Western Australia.

1948      American Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land.

1953      ‘Tribal Music of Australia’ LP, the first commercially available recording of the didgeridoo and field recorded by A. P. Elkin in Arnhem Land, released by Folkway Records.

lp

1957       Maningrida established as a ‘trading post’.

1961      Establishment of the Australian Institue of Aboriginal Studies, a statutory body devoted to Indigenous studies, later re-named the Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies.

1960s     Launch of self-determination policy of the Commonwealth Government. End of the missionary era. Aboriginal Councils take over the responsibility of running of communities in Arnhem Land.

1960s     Alice M. Moyle and Trevor A. Jones conducted ethnomusicological research in Arnhem Land, later publishing numerous articles on Arnhem Land music and the didgeridoo.

1960s     The start of historically important art collections created by Tony Tuckson, Dr Stuart Scougall, Karel Kupka, Louis Allen, Prof. Ed Ruhe, Jerome Gould, Jim Davidson and Dorothy Bennett

1963     The Art of the Didgeridoo’ by Trevor A. Jones released on LP by Wattle Recordings. This was the first demonstration of the traditional Aboriginal playing techniques of the didgeridoo by a non-Aboriginal person.

1967     Aboriginal Artists Agency established. Aboriginal music made more accessible through commercial recordings, radio and TV.

1971     Federal Government established a centralised marketing company for Aboriginal arts.

1973     Community-based art centres in Arnhem Land funded by the Aboriginal Arts Board of the Australia Council.

1976     Passing of the Aboriginal Land Rights (NT) Act 1976, which paved the way for Aboriginal people in the Northern Territory to win back their land.

1977     ‘Bamyili Corroboree, Songs of Djoli Laiwanga’ cassette released by Greville Records featuring David Bl*n*s* on didgeridoo. Bl*n*s* was regarded as the best player of the didgeridoo in the Western Arnhem Land style.

1977      ‘Wandjuk Marika in Port Moresby’ EP released by Larrakin Records, the first studio recording of an Aboriginal didgeridoo player.

1986     Formation of the Yothu Yindi band from north-east Arnhem Land, Northern Territory.

1990s     The World Wide Web (WWW) is born.

1990s     A number of cassettes released on playing the didgeridoo including Alastair Black’s “Didgeridoo – How to Play”.

1991      ‘Bloodwood, the Art of the Didjeridu’ by Alan Dargin with Michael Atherton released by Natural Symphonies. ‘Bloodwood’ received critical acclaim worldwide, and Alan’s virtuosity with the instrument set the standard for many didgeridoo players and recording artists for the next decade.

1993      Mandawuy Yunupingu, singer songwriter for the Yothu Yindi band, named Australian of the Year.

1993      Passing of the Native Title Act 1993, following the Mabo judgement handed down by the High Court of Australia that put the legal fiction of terra nulliusto rest.

1996      ‘Didjeridu Techniques of an Aboriginal Tribe’: first website on the yidaki and the traditional playing techniques of the Yolngu people.

1999       Inaugural Garma Festival in Gove, Northern Territory.

2000      Sydney Olympic Games. The start of mass produced didgeridoos.

2001      Establishment and launch of Rripangu Yirdaki, Djalu Gurruwiwi’s family enterprise.

2001      1st issue of Didgeridoo & Co Magazine.

rripangu2002      Djalu’ Gurruwiwi visits Germany for the Rripangu Yirdaki Festival.

2002      Establishment of Manikay.com for the “promotion and enjoyment of traditional Arnhem Land music”.
2003      The Australian Competition & Consumer Commission (ACCC) takes action against Australian Icon Products Pty Ltd, a large manufacturer of Aboriginal-style souvenirs, for alleged breaches in the Trade Practices Act including misleading and deceptive conduct.

2003      iDIDJ Australia is established.

 

DanDidgeridoo History